Should I take Test-boosters?

Lifestyle, Review, Supplementation

So in a recent article I mentioned the use and dangers of pro-hormones, the synthetic compounds one would take to facilitate higher levels of testosterone. Our testosterone levels peak around the stages of puberty and throughout our twenties, to decline as we age. While some men may have low testosterone for a number of medical and psychological reasons, there are some with much higher base levels, a section of men that will most likely build and maintain muscle much easier than the average guy even without the use of anabolic steroids, growth hormone etc. To narrowly avoid the precarious genetics debate of such individuals, let’s just say that it’s no shock to see these guys on a bodybuilding stage or in sports that require such muscular size, strength and endurance. If you believe that anything is possible with consistent training and diet, continue to work against the odds and persevere through scepticism. For everyone else who may suspect that there are more than just an array of physiological factors in place to look like these guys, yes, testosterone is certainly the catalyst. Nonetheless, higher testosterone levels can be acquired naturally; through exercise, through diet and of course adequate supplementation.  The benefits of using testosterone-boosting supplements will differ from person to person, making their overall effectiveness questionable to those expecting to notice bigger arms or a bigger bench. 

Even though there isn’t is a resounding correlation between visual muscularity -that most guys want, and strength, we still think it’s just as important to be reasonably strong, maybe its an ego thing, I don’t know. But I would say that upon adhering to the numerous factors aforementioned in articles concerning: macros, the importance of sleep, hydration and the effects of alcohol, it is definitely possible to make substantial strength improvements when implementing testosterone boosters to a well-structured diet and training routine. This isn’t just from my own experience, plenty of guys I’ve trained with in the past, friends and fellow fitness enthusiasts have reassured me of the same. That being said, and although these supplements are considered ‘enhancers’ they still can’t possibly substantiate the improper practice of the fundamentals. In ‘Over supplementing your diet’ I mentioned how the likes of supplementation should support a somewhat already perfected diet, a mere cherry on top of the cake of basic principles everyone seems to neglect and question when their importance is stressed in conversation. In terms of tangible effects, I’ve noticed elevated energy levels, increased appetite and even a substantial libido boost, depending on the relevant product and its ingredients. I wouldn’t say they have such a shock-like capacity as pre-workout or fat burners but still enough to fill the once lethargic, demotivated void that one often faces at the end of a busy day or stressful week.

You will probably notice how much your appetite goes up whilst training regularly, imagine that your testosterone levels take the same route in this respect. Which is why taking test-boosters has been an essential part of my supplement regime over the last few weeks. I have had to take a short break from training due to a recent injury, and while assuming that I’d be eating a lot more with all the extra time on my hands, it’s been quite the opposite. I do feel that during this time my appetite would have been next to nothing without test-boosters. By now you can probably sense that I highly recommend these supplements, incorporating them as part of a cyclical regime, as opposed to taking them over consecutive months. This way the potential benefits can reciprocate upon each use, rather than being somewhat taken for granted.

While there are probably hundreds of different test-boosting products, you’re likely to find a handful of key ingredients that even define subcategories on supplement sites such as Dolphin FitnessMost of these are somewhat herbal, deriving form medicinal plants and compounds renowned for matters concerning sexual health and vitality, nonetheless, they are highly useful in boosting testosterone;

Sodium DAA
ZMA- Zinc, Magnesium, Vitamin B6
Tribulus Terrestris
Horny Goat Weed
Tongkat Ali
Bulbine Natalensis
Massularia Acuminate
Ginger root

In my opinion these are the most popular ingredients you will find on the market, also including a few that I have used and found highly effective. For products that feature these ingredients in higher amounts, I’d recommend using either T-Up Black by Nutrex or RELOAD by Extreme Nutrition.

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Should I take Pro-hormones?

Lifestyle, Supplementation

Now not to be confused with ‘test boosters’ pro-hormones are mostly unclassified synthetic compounds which can have a detrimental impact on natural hormone production when used incorrectly. These androgenic products, synonymous to anabolic steroids are often grouped together under a different name and marketed like any other legal bodybuilding supplement, but can be just as toxic- if not ‘worse’ than the ‘the real thing’ This is due to the fact that they are mostly taken orally and present the liver with a highly complex concoction of different chemicals, as opposed to just one. There are numerous supplements available that assist and reduce liver toxicity whilst taking anabolic substances; milk thistle, Liv.52 etc realistically though, the type of guy that takes pro-hormones wont be interested in buying any additional ‘precautionary’ products, as they won’t actually make him any bigger.

Like all androgenic compounds, pro-hormones are designed to stimulate the production of Testosterone, the hormone that distinguishes us with male characteristics. While Testosterone levels vary from person to person, higher levels of the hormone will increase ones ability to obtain muscular strength and size, hence why steroids have such an important role within medical procedure and rehabilitation. While you’ll most likely hear the horror stories and side effects of using anabolic steroids, ultimately, they are only as harmful as the person using them. That being said, if you’re attracted to the fact that pro-hormones are legal and aren’t convinced they could do you much harm, think again.

There are so many different variations of these unclassified steroids and androgenic components, the potency of each will vary. For most people, pro-hormones aren’t as strong as steroids and taking a higher dose is the best policy, although some can be even stronger- M1T, Superdrol. This along with fact of the supplement industry coining the whole ‘stack’ or ‘stacking’ ploy from professional athletes open about steroid use such as Rich Piana -taking more than one at a time to satisfy a specific role. ‘Stacking’ these products isn’t entirely safe and will only make ‘coming off’ more problematic.

Now while you can buy pro-hormones at most supplement stores, most people tend to buy them online because of the whole pro-hormone/steroid ‘taboo’ po-tato, pot-ato. Meaning that anyone unaware of the importance of hormone care when using these supplements will be finding out too late. As I have previously mentioned it’s not necessarily the drugs, it’s abusing them, which brings me on to how people recover from using these products.

‘PCT’ or Post Cycle Therapy supplements, regulate hormones back to where they were originally, whilst minimizing Estrogen in the body- the female hormone. These supplements are essential, especially when having taken stronger versions of pro-hormones  that completely shut down the body’s ability to produce testosterone. This is another major element that guys always seem to disregard. Failing to sufficiently manage hormone levels after the use of anabolic compounds, can leave you with side effects similar to that of prolonged steroid use; hair loss, gynaecomastia and even erectile dysfunction. 

If you’re gonna go through all of this trouble, you’re probably better off doing your homework and getting advice from someone that actually knows what they’re doing, who understands how steroids work and the safest way to use them. Just because pro-hormones are easily accessible does not means that they aren’t dangerous and can’t give you some bad side effects- I’m glad we’ve crossed this bridge, stop taking pro-hormones, but if you’re gonna do it- I can’t stop you.

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Should I take ‘fat-burners?’

Lifestyle, Supplementation

As each year comes around it seems there’s even less time to get in shape for summer, still, don’t be in SUCH a rush to lose that extra baggage you’ve accumulated over the last few months. Thanks to YouTube, cos who reads books nowadays? We are becoming, ever so surely- smarter. No longer do we need to sieve through the mass of scientific jargon to pick out useful information or have to ask someone with a relevant degree for help. Nonetheless, this does not mean our judgement on what we put in our bodies has improved, by any means.

For a lot of people, ‘Fatburners’ sound like JUST the thing to assist weight loss, even if their activity level is ‘next to nothing’ and while the majority of ingredients in these types of supplements are legal, they are not entirely safe. Now if you’re a professional athlete, fitness enthusiast or just an average guy, your body’s threshold managing physical exertion will extend over time. Meaning that your body will adapt to pretty much anything you do often enough. If you look at professions that require higher amounts of physical exertion such as a scaffolder or labourer, the strength developed by strenuous activity will adapt in order to function the job at hand. That being said, top athletes apply additional elements to their training and diet in terms of optimising their performance. Imagine that Elevation training masks weren’t just for idiots that want to look like Bane and ARE designed for serious athletes. Well, fatburners are kind of like this too. The thermogenic capacity of these products is down to a few distinctive ingredients that you will find in most ‘fat burning’ or ‘metabolism boosting’ products.

Just to name a few…

  •  CAFFEINE: Now while Caffeine is an everyday component of an active lifestyle, it also has diuretic properties in higher amounts- like your bladder if you’ve ever tried the Volvic 14 day challenge- but all the time.
  • GREEN TEA EXTRACT: Green tea is no longer just for folks that have a yoga mat and a vegetable garden, it too has diuretic properties, boosts metabolism and looks great on Instagram with a slice of lemon.
  • CLA- Conjugated linoleic acid: Another common ingredient in most diet/ fatburning supplements but will most likely be sold individually. CLA is a fatty acid that affects the enzymes that burn fat from both fat cells and fat within the blood- apparently.
  • Citrus Aurantium or ‘bitter orange’ This is a compound yielding similar properties to all of the above, including the release of epinephrine for improved focus and energy. I do believe the nervous/hot/jittery energy comes from this component within a fair few fat burning supplements I have tried, so do be cautious.
There are plenty of other common ingredients within most popular supplements like ketones, various herbs and capsaicin. Capsaicin is an active component of the chilli pepper, you can see where this is going…
By raising the temperature of the body, we burn more fat. Well that’s the plan anyway. This is why you’ll find ingredients in products that derive or relate to capsaicin such as cayenne pepper in Grenade Thermo Detonator. So technically if I eat a tonne of spicy food I will lose weight? Well no probably not. Nevertheless the role of heat-inducing compounds are essential in fatburners. As I previously mentioned these would be beneficial to individuals that have all of the fundamental controls in place in order to ‘cut’ employing the use of such products to optimise their performance and capacity to burn fat, NOT having the work done FOR THEM. This brings me on to people reasonably new to these types of supplements, unaware of their effects when combined with intense exercise. Bearing in mind supplement brands promoting aforesaid products will sometimes encourage users to take ‘X’ amount of servings in the hope of increasing ‘performance’ but even just ONE of the two- even three capsules recommended in a ‘serving’ could still put someone new to fat burners -even pre-workout- in a bit of a panic. If you’ve not exercised for quite some time and are desperate to lose the weight you’ve accumulated, at least get back into the swing of things before even considering using fat burners. This will only prevent you from passing out at the gym, or worse. If you’re considering the use of fat burners everyday, be sure to think about whether this will impede on your working capability of day to day tasks, will there be the possibility of a fan? am I on edge? is there a puddle in my shoe?
Fatburners and fasted cardio? This is a no-brainer, don’t do it. If you’re familiar with fasted cardio you’ll know that that the big HB- heartburn is bad enough without throwing a ghost chilli and shot of adrenaline in the mix. Don’t forget having these on an empty stomach will drastically increase the effects, you might sweat just as much as you would when doing HIIT , it’s probably not a good idea to pair these together, I once learned.
 Ultimately, fat burners are helpful to implement on top of a good solid diet, they speed up the process of weight-loss to an extent and do provide a somewhat substantial amount of energy when its needed -especially on low-carb days- even if it is all from caffeine. I would however, like to point out that they are not for beginners and certainly not for people with a poor cardiovascular ability, low activity level or bad tolerance of stimulants.
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More on Macros & ‘The Bulking Fear’


So in a previous post I mentioned the flexible approach to dieting known as IIFYM. This refers to inputting your daily meals and various other aspects of your lifestyle into MyFitnessPal, in order to track and manipulate certain elements when needed be. Now macro counting can seem tedious when the foods that you consume vary in size and frequency each day, ultimately though, having a solid structure to stick to may be just as critical in assisting weight loss or weight gain as the numerical nutritional values. For a lot of people, calorie counting is mainly for CUTTING weight, although adhering to or above a certain calorie goal everyday will benefit those with weight GAIN in mind all the same. Unless you’d consider yourself a food connoisseur and eat out almost everyday, you’ll find that the food you eat week to week won’t be worlds apart. Although, you still need to be conscious of the nutritional components in order to assist your efforts of physical CHANGE. This could be to lose 4kg or gain it, either way, failing to identity the amounts of macronutrients you consume daily will make it much more difficult to reap the benefits of physical EFFORT/EXERTION. Plainly put, and you’ve probably heard this plenty of times to know, ‘your body doesn’t WANT to change’ manipulating a number of different factors will FORCE it to do so, your calorie/carbs/fat/protein intake being just a few to name. 

When you see lads weighing themselves after every workout -as though the iron from a few dumbbells has somehow transcended into them- the reason why they could have hit a ‘plateau’ is probably gonna be to do with their input vs their output. This refers to the nutrients that we consume -input- as opposed to physical effort, what we do -output- If you put the wrong fuel in your car not only will you not get to work, you will most probably damage the engine. Our bodies are the same, in that we fuel -feed- ourselves in order to function. The way that we look is simply a byproduct of how much food is used as energy or stored as fat. Our body’s capacity to burn or store fat will undoubtedly be predetermined by our genetic makeup, but I believe it can be overruled to an extent just the same. 

Our primal predecessors would have had to hunt for food, conditioning their bodies by means of function and survival. Today we have the facility to have someone else find an animal, someone else to kill it, another to cook it and another to bring it to us. By doing so we impede evolution, and endanger the once predatory genetic makeup of our ancestors -cheers JustEat. For anyone thats heard of The paleolithic or ‘caveman’ diet, mainly consisting of meat, nuts and berries, by contrast it highlights the kind of foods that the modern world has grown accustomed to through agricultural and productive advancement. These include dairy, starchy carbohydrates and processed foods -so basically everything we eat. I have tried the Paleo diet for a short period in the past and it was beneficial to the extent of not being able to function on a human level due to such low carbs. Although in retrospect, adopting certain approaches of the caveman diet may be of some merit with regards to weight loss especially when its needed within a restricted time frame, i.e contest prep, summer holidays etc. When the instance of this is relevant I could attempt to cover more of it, but technically we’re still in the ‘off season’

Now for anyone that considers themselves a successful bodybuilder/fitness athlete/ sponsored bitch, the key to attaining a solid physique is all down to the work put in during the ‘off season’ If you look good all year round, give the swans a smooch you absolute hero. For most of us, the additional weight we acquire during the winter months SHOULD be seen as more of a blessing than a burden. If you get over the fact that you may be holding onto a little more water than usual and realise that those around you aren’t interested in the slightest, you may be a step closer to your ‘#goals#2016goals’ Now there’s two words that get thrown around often enough to me cringe -even worse when they’re in same sentence- but LEAN MASS for most people, will always be in vain. This refers to gaining as much muscle as possible, whilst minimising fat. This is possible by narrowly exceeding a caloric threshold but you’ll still need to get somewhat ‘fat’ in order for this to be of any benefit. I can’t imagine this appealing to anyone that already considers themselves reasonably lean without exercise but if they wanna look like someone a 14 year old girl would have on their wall thats up to them. So this is the part where I mention this new flexible approach to dieting called ‘If It Fits Your Macros’ … IIFYM

So THE BULKING FEAR. Does she think I’ve let myself go? Do I use the pool at the gym? Is there a chance that we could end up playing strip poker? shit, I have rolls? All these questions are indicative of consuming extra calories, but unlike make-up, its better to have MORE as opposed to LESS. Just look at most professional fitness athletes when they’re not competing, the extent to which they go to pretty much epitomises what an ‘off season’ SHOULD entail, look at someone like Sadik Hadzovic and tell me that he looks the same all year round. Lets face it, for someone that trains consistently and has an awareness on the importance of diet, putting on a few kg’s over the space of a few months isn’t something to be fearful of in the slightest. For anyone struggling to gain weight for any particular reason, ignoring this fear will not only put the knowledge you may have acquired into practise, it will provide you with an insight to how sensitive your body is to change. As previously mentioned, genetics may stipulate our ability to gain or lose weight but be realistic in the sense that it may take a while.

Current macros -although I aim to exceed these daily-  for my current weight of 94kg are as follows;

Screen Shot 2016-01-13 at 00.36.17


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Mutant Mass vs USN’s Muscle Fuel Anabolic


With the current overhaul of ‘weight gainers’ on the supplement market, it’s hard to filter through such that may be of substantial benefit to diets requiring extra calories or stuff that’s basically packed with more sugar than a tub or two of Ben & Jerry’s. Now obviously to bump up the calorie content there’s gonna be some sacrifice to clean carb sources, so it’s fitting to compare what I deem to be the two hard-hitting weight-gain products on the current market; USN’s Muscle Fuel Anabolic and MUTANT Mass.
These brands are worlds apart in terms of their approach to training and diet philosophy. If you’re not familiar with Mutant, It’ll most likely feature a behemoth like Rich Piana and market itself in a way that would probably deter the ‘average’ person that maybe doesn’t pride themselves in looking like a Belgian Bleur that can’t tie their own shoelaces. USN takes a much more marketable approach, with an expense of endorsements from numerous top athletes and fitness models, presenting the potential of attainable physiques as a result of proper training and nutrition.
With regards to the cost, size and value of each product, Mutant’s 6.8KG bag will stretch your money much further than MFA’s 4KG tub with the average online price of both products ranging between £43-£50. Although depending on which serving suggestion you adhere to when using each product will determine how many servings you can expect. MFA suggests using 150g in every serving to which there are 26 in every tub, a smaller 100g would give 40 servings for individuals not wanting 90g of carbs sitting on their stomach. Mutant Mass also features the same amount in each 130g serving but does have almost three times the amount of sugar as the 7g in a serving of the USN All in One. This is definitely evident in the taste of Mutant Mass across the three flavours I have tried; Cookies & Cream, Triple Chocolate and Peanut Butter. They are quite sickly and don’t sit very well to say the least, making it difficult to have in conjunction with a diet requiring a surplus of calories. The strawberry, vanilla and chocolate cream flavours of Muscle Fuel Anabolic are definitely much more palatable, with a thinner consistency that mixes with minimum effort as opposed to Mutant Mass that should come with a free cement mixer. No it does EVENTUALLY mix together but can’t imagine why anyone would attempt to consume FOUR scoops indicated within the nutritional information, bearing in mind each 130g has the same amount of sugar as a typical serving of Ben & Jerry’s. Some of Mutants ‘athletes’ even condone putting a few ladles of ice cream into shakes which I personally think is ill-advised to those who don’t know the technicalities of diet and are wholly impressionable to what they see online. Although I do feel like as a “does what it says on the tin’ type product, it’d be narrow-minded of me to fail to recognise some people aspire to reach the largest form they can possibly attain, therefore by requiring extra calories by convenient means is just as practically justified as MFA to athletes in a surplus of calories.
As far as protein is concerned MFA’s 150g serving has double the 25g in Mutant Mass, and although there is probably some merit in comparing each of the various protein sources in both MFA and Mutant Mass I’d rather not to go down this precarious rabbit hole leaving me in no-mans land between vegans and everyone else with a degree in nutrition. With the ever-growing knowledge of supplementation within the bodybuilding community it’s great to see brands that can cover an array of different nutritional functions in a single product, and it’s clear that Muscle Fuel Anabolic covers near enough every point on the spectrum. With 3g of Creatine in every serving, ZMA and a huge amino acid profile including arginine, glutamine and aspartic acid, You’re looking at a good £25/30 saving from just the Creatine and amino acids alone. Mutant Mass does also hold a rather sufficient profile, each serving containing the afore mentioned AND MORE in abundance will support muscle breakdown, protein synthesis and the potential increase of growth hormone, making it a fundamental staple of recovery.
Ultimately, I can’t see the amino acid profile clawing it back for Mutant Mass, although it will definitely be of some benefit for the hard-gainer that counts KG on his bench and never the scales. I feel Muscle Fuel Anabolic is much more suited to my goals in terms of gaining lean muscle gradually in a surplus of reasonably clean calories rather than overloading on sugar and mistaking an overloaded carb pump for genuine progress. I will continue to use MFA during this stage in my training but would consider using Mutant Mass in the event that I take up powerlifting or a sport that requires a lot more calories in order to maintain or to grow.

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Over supplementing your diet 

Lifestyle, Supplementation

Now whether you’re just starting out training or you consider yourself a seasoned pro, supplementation is probably gonna be a reoccurring topic of your lifting life. Each time you order your most recent ‘stack’ you’ll always be faced with some degree of doubt as to whether you should stick to your guns or try something new. This also includes adding a tub or two of pre workout to your basket so you’re “eligible for free delivery” and not because you now need three scoops just to get you through ‘cardio’ – whatever that is. Ultimately, you’ve rationalised a huge section for supplementation in your diet so much so that not only will most of what you consume be full of sweeteners/preservatives by convenient means such as bars or shakes, you most likely have very little left to afford the main component of your diet, food.

So why does it seem like I’m forbidding people to buy them? despite the fact that I spend a fair amount of supplements. Well the function of supplementation for me is simply a matter of convenience. If I had a different job or was lucky enough to work from home, I probably wouldn’t even buy supplements just so I could focus more on the better nutritional sources from actual food rather than something in powder form.

This does not mean however, most supplements aren’t nutritionally sound or useful as part of your diet, because most will be exactly that. However the fact that people may have allowed supplements to overshadow more important aspects of their diet without knowing, may be problematic when perhaps they can’t afford it, a certain product is out of stock or even discontinued. You may feel like your progress will suffer without supplements and probably already convinced yourself that you look smaller after missing one shake post-workout, but be realistic and don’t keep checking yourself at every mirror opportunity, because it was probably only a bit of water weight the starter three servings of ‘x’ or 5 servings of ‘y’ would do anyway.

This is another thing, look on the back of your containers to see exactly how many servings you’ll get and how many you actually need daily as opposed to what is suggested for “the hardcore gainer” -this is by no means a challenge and not only will this stop you getting your money’s worth by doubling up servings, you’ll soon begin to replace the food in your diet, by something that will obviously be more convenient but insufficient in the role of fueling your body properly, rather than just feeling temporarily ‘full’ Despite acknowledging that consuming more specific nutrients during the whole “anabolic window” may have some benefit behind it, this is also yet another method to encourage you to consume more and buy EVEN more, so try to sieve out genuine serving instructions from yet another marketing ploy.

For a lot of people, the addition of any new supplement will be for an extra ‘boost’ and that’s understandable, but be sure to at least research some of the ingredients in certain products individually before jumping straight in. Many substances can have a profound effect on one person and not even touch another, regardless of ones tolerance to ‘similar’ compounds, so obviously don’t take the amount you may have had using a previous product.

When it comes to any kind of stimulant or test booster making it’s way into your shopping basket every month, be sure to realise whether it’s still having a constructive part to play, as the effect from these types of products will gradually wear off. If it’s the break from caffeine you need in order to allow your system to level out, realise the advantage of saving such energy-based supplements for when you actually plateau or have recently had a few weeks off from training because of injury or otherwise.

When if comes to preworkout, if you haven’t already made the connection to the ‘3D’ – perhaps another topic- I myself became dependant on stimulants to the point where training without them seemed redundant. Making this realisation probably saved me from seriously harming my body as well as the detrimental effect on my training. I now appreciate the facility of supplements that I believe potentially have a positive effect in moderation to the point where I only find myself buying essential supplements that support an active schedule such as protein powder and maybe even pre-workout when I feel it will be beneficial and not destructive.

In terms of what you could potentially take that may be beneficial to your diet considering all of the above, I’d suggest researching a few different ingredients or compounds yourself to help you consider your options when choosing a ‘pre’ or test-booster.
For pre workout, any reputable brand with enough CAFFEINE that’s gonna get you through a demanding workout but not gonna keep you up for a week. As far as CREATINE is concerned, I don’t see this being of immediate enough effect to you to make it a must despite the fact this’ll probably be in every pre’ on the market anyway, but again nothing stupidly dosed everyday that’s gonna swell you up like a puffer fish but shrivel you like a prune when you haven’t had as much water that day. Any HERB or l long-ass word that seems to be a plant-like substance that you tried to google but ended up on some hippy-bashing Wikipedia page; take with a pinch of salt and see if you can find a credible study or even more credible BRO that has tried it himself. If this is the case and if seemed to work for him, see if this was actually legit or not due to the concoction of other shit, but anyway. BETA-ALANINE, this is the stuff that makes you feel like you’ve got ants crawling on your skin if you have too much, but a warmish buzz of energy when ‘dosed’ correctly, you’ll also find this in most popular products on the market, so if you’re deterred by the thought of an unfamiliar sensation double check if this ingredient happens to be in the product you may still be deciding on.

As far as test-boosters are concerned, most of the ingredients you will find within them will feature some of the same plant-like substances previously mentioned, where the official effects are mainly myth but can prove otherwise after trying it yourself. Naturally occurring herbs such as ‘TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS’, ‘MACA’ and ‘HORNY GOAT WEED’ all share a similar credibility within certain cultures as aphrodisiacs, thus instilling a stronger libido and even appetite in some, although others claimed no significant benefit. Despite some of their outlandish titles, along with SODIUM D-ASPARTIC ACID, I believe it’s definitely worth investing in some if not all of these at some point to satisfy the curiosity of boosting testosterone naturally without total hormonal shutdown that improper use of anabolics or prohormones may have.

For any supplement advice or general discussion about any aforesaid topic, feel free to email me;